Morocco: Succumbing to European Rule
As the effects of modernizing and industrializing began to become globally apparent, many countries, such as Morocco, were left in an inferior state. Previously being an economic and political superior, Morocco was left in disarray following the Industrial Revolution. The nation reached lowly conditions after falling behind in global modernization. Europe thrived politically and economically, while Morocco fell into a political and economic state of havoc. European powers began to take advantage of Morocco's vulnerability and weakness by establishing and administering rule throughout the country. Though Morocco was ultimately pressured under imperial rule by France and Spain, protectorates were established allowing Morocco to modernize under European rule, but with protection to their religion and their Sultan; thus, allowing Moroccan culture to be preserved.
Though Morocco was imperialized by both France and Spain, France held the most land and administered the most control. By establishing imperial rule in Morocco, France aimed to adjust the status quo of Moroccans by establishing a "new regime" through introducing educational, economic, political, and military reforms. The French, however, allowed the prestige of the Sultan to be retained while they ruled under a "shadow" government, similar to the modern royal family in Britain today. The Sultan, Abd-Al Hafdid, opposed French rule and was intractable and burdensome to the protectorate; therefore, he was replaced by his malleable brother, Yusef ben Hussan in 1912. After the change in rule occurred, France began progressing at a dramatic pace.
Just after the French Protectorate was established in 1912, Morocco began to see dramatic, progressive changes in society. Immediately, France began erecting trading posts, modern buildings, and schools throughout the protectorate. Modern technology, such as warfare and machinery, were also introduced into the country. Morocco, known for its fertile and bountiful lands, possessed many raw goods which were exported globally. With France's involvement, mining became a critical into the Moroccan economy, allowing phosphorus, iron, metal, zinc, and uranium to be a demanding export. France continued its mission to modernize Morocco by also introducing schools to the Moroccan population. The French worked to "westernize" Moroccan society by introducing European languages, customs, and traditions to the Moroccans. Their efforts ultimately allowed Morocco to grow from an obsolete nation into a productive, westernized country.
The End of Imperial Rule in Morocco
After desiring to regain full control of Morocco, Sultan Mohammad V worked to restore full jurisdiction to Morocco. The Sultan was ultimately able to eliminate French power by promising to make Morocco a constitutional monarchy in late 1955. All French and Spanish power was finally eliminated in March of 1956 after signing the French-Moroccan agreement. After Morocco gained back all control, Mohammad V worked to build Morocco into a constitutional monarchy and preserve all Moroccan values and virtues, however society once again reached disorder.